# Handling requests

Handler functions are just functions that either set the ctx.res property, or actually write to the response in case of a DUPLEX call. Typically these functions do not return anything, and we ignore their return values.


Unary calls are the simplest. They are simple request and response remote procedure calls. The client calls the remote method with certain request message and the service responds with a response message. In case of UNARY calls simply set ctx.res to the response message value.

app.use(ctx => ctx.res = { message: 'Hello ' + ctx.req.name })

In most cases we would do some kind of actual work within a handler that may involve performing asynchronous actions. Mali expects and supports Promise implementation in such scenarios. Using Babel or async-to-gen we can take advantage of async and await ES6 mechanisms to make such code cleaner and more intuitive.

async function getUser(ctx) {
  // read user from database based on user id and send it once done
  ctx.res = await ctx.db.get(ctx.req.id)

app.use({ getUser })


Another type of call is where clients call a remote with a request message and expect a stream in response that emits the message values. This is typically useful for getting list of things based on some parameters.

For example lets say we have a JSON file, messages.json:

    "message": "Hello Bob"
    "message": "Hello Kate"
    "message": "Hello Jim"
    "message": "Hello Sara"

If we have a call definition sayHellos that expects a stream of message, we could stream this to the client using JSONStream module:

app.use('sayHellos', function sayHellos (ctx) {
  ctx.res = fs

Another useful module for working with streams is Highland.js.


Similarly with a REQEUST STREAM call a client calls the remote with a stream of input message values and expects a single response based on the inputs.

For example if the client sent a stream of messages it might want to know the number successfully written and failed. Using highland we could do something like:

async function doWork (inputStream) {
  const stream = fs.createWriteStream('messages.txt')
  let succeeded = 0
  let failed = 0

  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
      .tap(message => {
        try {
        } catch (e) {
      .toCallback((err, result) => {
        if (err) return reject(err)
        resolve({ succeeded, failed })

app.use('writeHellos', async function writeHellos (ctx) {
  // consume all the input and do some work based on it and return a final computation value
  ctx.res = await doWork(ctx.req)

Note that since this is an asynchronous operation we (a)wait for a fulfilment of Promise once we're done with all the values emitted from the input stream.


Finally, in case of DUPLEX call, the ctx.req, and ctx.res properties just reference the gRPC call duplex stream. We implement this the same as we would with the stock grpc module, just read the data coming in using data events on the ctx.req property and and write the data to the client using the write method of ctx.res.

app.use('processStuff', async function processStuff (ctx) {
  ctx.req.on('data', d => ctx.res.write({ message: d.message.toUpperCase() }))
  ctx.req.on('end', () => ctx.res.end())